Universiteit Leiden

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An Algebra for Interaction of Cyber-Physical Components

  • B. Lion
donderdag 1 juni 2023
Rapenburg 73
2311 GJ Leiden


  • Prof.dr.ir. F. Arbab
  • dr. C. Talcott


Modeling and analysis of cyber-physical systems are still challenging⁠. One reason is that cyber-physical systems involve many different parts (cyber or physical), of different nature (discrete or continuous), and in constant interaction via sensing and actuating⁠.
For instance, consider a group of robots, each running a program that takes decision based on the sequence of sensor readings⁠. The sensors that equip a robot return the current position of the robot and the position of any adjacent obstacle⁠. The interaction occurring between each robot in the group cannot be derived solely from the specification
of individual robots⁠. If the field on which the robots roam changes its property, the same group of robots might sense different values, and therefore take different actions⁠. Also, the time at which a robot acts and senses will affect the decision of each controller and will change the resulting collective behavior⁠.

This thesis proposes a compositional approach to the design and programming of interacting cyber-physical components⁠. We present an algebra that provides a novel perspective on modeling interaction of cyber-physical components⁠. Using our algebraic framework, one can design a complex cyber-physical system by first designing each part, and then specifying how the parts interact⁠. We formalized the relation between our abstract semantic model and an implementation written in Maude, a programming language based on rewriting logic⁠. We present some applications, including safety and liveness properties of a system consisting of a set of robots, each equipped with a battery, running on a shared field⁠.


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